Does Donald Trump have dyslexia?


Donald Trump HAS Dyslexia.

(And so do a majority of Trump supporters AS WELL AS Vladimir Putin.)


Dyslexia has little, or nothing, to do with intelligence or “letter reversal.”  Rather, dyslexia typically describes symptoms of individuals who have difficulty reading and/or understanding letter-based words.  


Dyslexia DOES NOT mean that those people CANNOT read or are stupid.   It only means that their near vision is sufficiently unstable, making the process of reading letter-based words more difficult.  Individuals with dyslexia may be extremely intelligent and frequently have difficulties ONLY when dealing with letter-based text.  Because they CAN learn to read, if they try hard enough, most people with dyslexia DO learn to read, and DO NOT realize that they have a literacy impairment.  Much of the “letter reversal” associated with dyslexia is actually a matter of “bad guessing” of the letters and words due to an unstable image, rather than a cerebral dysfunction. 



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The Physiology and Mechanics of Vision and Dyslexia


Reading letter-based words is a collaborative process where the combination of the letters determines the word meaning, and the combination of words determines the conceptWords and letters by themselves frequently have no meaningMeaning comes from the context and the relationship with associated words.  NON-dyslexics have mastered the collaborative letter-to-word-to-concept process. 


One theory of the origin of dyslexia is that the increased reading difficulty for people with dyslexia is due to a higher ratio of Red/Green color-receptive photoreceptors in the fovea area (center of the retina in the back of the eye) resulting in Near Vision Stress As the biological lens changes its shape (becomes flatter or thicker) it bends (“refracts”) light so that Blue is focused in FRONT of the Retina, Green ON the Retina, and Red is focused BEHIND the retina.  Reading skills (and a Stable Near Image) are optimized when the eye has a more balanced ratio of Red and Green photoreceptors (50% Red and 45% Green) photoreceptors which enables a Stable Near Image.  When the eye has a higher ratio of Red photoreceptors (75% Red and 20% Green), it becomes more difficult to form a Stable Near Image (as illustrated below) and instead induces Near Vision Stress making it more difficult to read words.  HOWEVER, Near Vision Stress ENHANCES Stable Distance Image which has the evolutionary advantage of those individuals being better able to spot predators and game.  Acuity is NOT regulated by the brain.  Instead, acuity is regulated by the color perception of the fovea called Chromatic Triangulation.  

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Chromatic Triangulation regulates acuity.


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The Dyop® as a Revolutionary Method of Measuring Visual Clarity (Acuity)


Vision is a dynamic process using Resolution Acuity of images rather than a static process using Recognition Acuity of letters despite the use of letter-based tests as devised by Ophthalmologist Dr. Herman Snellen in 1862.  The static letters suggested by Snellen are irregular, inconsistent, have bloated stimulus gaps, and are cultural and literacy dependent.


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Light stimulating clusters of Cone-Photoreceptors

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1862 - Snellen Acuity

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Dyop 20/20 Acuity

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Dyop 20/20 Adult Acuity


Dyop® (pronounced “di-op” - short for dynamic optotype) is a spinning segmented ring visual target used to measure visual acuity (clarity) by creating a strobic stimulus of the photoreceptors of the eyes.  The smallest diameter Dyop where the spin direction of the ring can be detected indicates visual clarity (acuity).  When the diameter of the ring is too small to detect the ring (and gaps) as spinning, you have a sub-acuity diameter. 

Ten second Dyop Acuity Screening Test.


(The following is a static image of the acuity screening test.)


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To use the above acuity test on a computer or tablet, move ten feet away from the screen and note the smallest pair of spinning Black/White rings which can be detected as spinning.  The AM (arc minute) value associated with the size of the smallest ring which can be clearly detected as spinning is the acuity endpoint.


Dyop background information and validation



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Ten second Dyop Color Screening (dyslexia screening) test.


To use the Dyop color screening test for detecting possible symptoms of dyslexia, make sure that the individual is initially close enough to the screen to see both the Blue/Black AND Green/White rings as spinning.  The pairs of spinning Green/White and spinning Blue/Black Dyops of the color screening test have identical diameters Next, ask the individual to move away from the screen until they CANNOT detect any of the segmented rings (Blue/Black OR Green/White) as moving (sub-acuity), as those spinning Dyops become smaller.  Then have them move forward towards the spinning images and determine whether they see the Blue spinning ring OR the Green spinning ring first.  When the identical diameter spinning Green and Blue Dyop rings become sufficiently larger, only one of the spinning rings will be detected as spinning.  The color/contrast screening test works the same on an iPhone as on a computer.


On a computer or tablet, move ten feet from the screen and note which of the smallest pair of spinning rings can be detected as spinning.  If the smallest ring which can be clearly detected is the Blue/Black ring rather than the Green/White ring, then it indicates that the individual likely has dyslexia.  Seeing a smaller Green/White ring indicates non-dyslexia.  On a smartphone, observe the spinning rings at about a two-foot viewing distance.


(The following are static images of the color screening tests.)


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Academic validation of the Dyop color screening test:


Due to their Unstable Near-vision Image, people with dyslexia, also tend to overcompensate when they walk down a hallway.  Their heads will tend to bob from side-to-side (also known as the "Steve Jobs walk").  That physical overcompensation frequently leads to excess overconfidence (aka, the Dunning Kruger Effect), as well as assertiveness, and a preference for authoritarianism (aka, "Steve Jobs management style ").  They frequently have difficulty with written academics (such as "Steve Jobs, the college dropout"), and a disposition for drug use such as marijuana or alcohol to try to reduce the visual stress from the difficulty in focusing on near images.   (Jobs went to India where weed was legal and widely available.)   When they have an abusive or unstable childhood (e.g., Donald Trump) they may also learn to lie and bully other people to try to hide their illiteracy and incompetence.


Based upon body language, behavior, and videos showing Donald Trump in situations where he is expected to be able to read, it is overwhelmingly obvious that Donald Trump has dyslexia.  His abusive, narcissistic behavior is not only a collection of character flaws, but also reflects his attempts to hide his illiteracy AND his incompetence by being excessively aggressive and/or abusive.


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Videos illustrating Donald Trump’s dyslexia.


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In 2016 Tony Schwartz (the actual author of “The Art of the Deal”) made a presentation

at Oxford University eight days before the US Presidential Election.


The most stunning part of Tony Schwartz’s comments start at the 40-minute mark with Schwartz’s opinion that “WHEN” (Schwartz’s expectation) Trump lost the 2016 Presidential Election, Trump would become even more destructive to America by being able to continue his criminal activities “under the radar” and without being caught or being held accountable.


The phrase “with all due respect” actually means you have NO RESPECT for the opinion of the other person.  Ironically, the phase “Trump Derangement Syndrome” was created BY TRUMP SUPPORTERS to accuse those who mistrust Trump as being mentally deranged.  However, the phase actually describes the behavior and mentality of the gullible Trump SUPPORTERS rather than the Trump critics.


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HOWEVER, Vladimir Putin also has dyslexia.


The above video shows Putin walking with the head-bobbing gait typical of dyslexics.  Putin also had a very insecure childhood.  By joining the KGB, unlike Trump who learned as an abused child to lie to hide his illiteracy and bully others to hide his incompetence, Putin learned to kill people to hide his incompetence.  And he is still doing it.


What also indicated Putin’s dyslexia was an interview of diplomat Fiona Hill by Stephen Colbert where she describes being at a Russian State Dinner and sitting next to Putin.  Putin was so paranoid about assassination attempts that he did not eat or drink anything for fear of being poisoned.  However, the notes for his speech were on cards with letters about I inch (~2 cm) in height to make them sufficiently legible.  It is the same thing that Trump does with printed speeches in extra-large print to try to compensate for the visual instability of his dyslexia.


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Factors of Vision and Childhood Stress


The number one factor motivating all animals is a sense of control contributing to survival.  That control may be measured in terms of security, money, nourishment (food), companionship, sex, possessions (toys), a sense of purpose, or a sense of cognition (religion, politics, or science). 


Individuals who experience a secure and non-abused childhood tend to become functional adultsRegardless of whether or not they have dyslexia, they tend to be symbiotic in their interactions with other people and maximize their development of productive skills.  However, if they have an insecure or abusive childhood, they retain those anxieties into adulthood and tend to prefer hierarchical (structured) relationships rather than symbiotic (dynamic) relationships.


What IS significant with the overwhelming majority of Trump supporters is NOT just their dyslexia, but rather that their dyslexia symptoms combine with their personal experiences of an insecure/fear-filled or abusive childhood.  That childhood insecurity results in authoritarian beliefs and gullibility towards both Trump and other authoritarian concepts.   Individuals with dyslexia, and an insecure/abusive childhood, learn to lie to hide their illiteracy, tend to tolerate manipulation or become bullies like Trump (or killers like Putin) to hide their incompetence.


Again, there are TWO key elements in voters who are Trump supporters and both must be present:

1.    A preference for authoritarianism due to an insecure/fear-filled/abusive (authoritarian) childhood (similar to Trump’s)

2.    Symptoms of visual dyslexia (Near Vision Stress) due to either a higher ratio of red to green photoreceptors) or strabismus.


The overwhelming majority of individuals who do NOT test positive for dyslexia OR who had a supportive-positive childhood tend to loath Trump and are incredulous that Trump supporters are gullible enough to fail to realize the implications of Trump’s lies, adultery, and business ineptitude and illegalities because they feel the need to subservient to his (abusive) authoritarian personality.


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Three steps to validate the combined effects of vision and childhood stress:


1.  Ask those individuals to take the following personality preference test:

These items are qualities which most people believe children should have.  Every person also thinks that some qualities are more important than others.


Below are four pairs of desirable qualities.  For each pair, ask the individual WHICH of the two qualities in each category (either A or B) they think is more important for a child to have?


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If the individual selects the FIRST of each pair (A) of the FOUR options, it indicates that the individual prefers authoritarianism.  If the individual selects the SECOND of each pair (B) of the FOUR options, it indicates that the individual prefers cooperation.


The sample questions (above) are those of Matthew MacWilliams, author of ON FASCISM, in developing the “American Authoritarian Index” as presented in his book.



2.  Use the 10 second Dyop color screening test (which should work on any electronic display) to determine potential symptoms of dyslexia:


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PC/iPad/iPhone version of the Dyop Color Screening test:


Smartphone version of the Dyop Color Screening test:


Preferentially seeing the Blue/Black ring spinning indicates likely dyslexia and a higher ratio of Red photoreceptors (75% Red, 20% Green, and 5% Blue) and Near Vision Stress.  Non-dyslexics tend to see the Green/White spinning ring and have a more balanced Red photoreceptor ratio (50% Red, 45% Green, and 5% Blue).


 3.  Ask those individuals if they voted for Trump or Biden?


Symptoms of dyslexiamigraines, and/or epilepsy are indicated when you can ONLY detect the smaller Blue/Black Dyop as spinning and NOT the identical diameter spinning Green/White DyopThis Dyop color screening test has a 90% correlation to personal or family history symptoms of Near Vision Stress such as dyslexia, migraines, and/or epilepsy.


Our theory is that approximately 85% of the Trump supporters (see Pre-Election Survey below)  have BOTH a stressed or authoritarian childhood (as indicated by their selecting the A Option of ALL four of the questions in variable #1) AND "Near Vision Stress" (indicated by their preferentially seeing the spinning “Blue” ring in variable #2).


This is NOT coincidence, but rather is causation.

See the anecdotal 2016 Pre-Election Survey below.


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The 2016 Pre-Election Dyslexia + Authoritarianism Survey


Prior to the November 2016 Presidential Election, I anecdotally noticed that many of the enthusiastic Trump supporters I knew also had symptoms of Near Vision Stress when using the Dyop (short for dynamic optotype) color screening test.  


A Dyop is a spinning segmented ring visual target used to measure visual acuity (clarity) by creating a strobic stimulus of the cone-photoreceptors of the eyes.  The smallest diameter Dyop where the direction of spinning of the ring can be detected indicates visual clarity-acuity.  When the gaps are too small to detect the ring as spinning, you have a sub-acuity ring diameter.  The color/contrast screening test works the same on an iPhone as on a computer.


To create an anecdotal validation of “political/visual” correlation, in 2016 I went to a nearby Mall Food Court and used the color screening test on my iPhone with randomly selected individuals.


Ten second dyslexia screening test.


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At the Mall Food Court in 2016, I asked 30 "registered voters" two questions:


1.)   "As the identical diameter spinning Blue and Green rings appear to become smaller by your moving away from the screen, you will detect ONLY ONE of the two rings as spinning.  Is it the Green-on-White or the Blue-on-Black ring that is spinning?


2.)  “If you were to vote today, would you vote for Clinton or Trump?"


3.)   How stressful was your childhood, on a scale of 1 to 10?


In the initial survey, 17 subjects preferentially saw the Blue/Black Dyop spinning, and 13 subjects preferentially only saw the Green Dyop spinning.  Of the 30 subjects, 11 were Trump supporters and 19 were Clinton supporters.  (There were also six individuals I approached who refused to participate in the survey.)


ALL 11 of the Trump supporters preferentially saw the spinning Blue rather than the identical diameter spinning GreenOf the 19 Clinton supporters, six of them preferentially saw the spinning Blue and 13 of them preferentially saw the spinning Green.  NONE of the Trump supporters preferentially saw the spinning Green, indicating that the overwhelming majority of the 13 Trump supporters had Near Vision Stress.


However, there is a childhood factor as to the correlation of dyslexia and Trump support.


(See below for a discussion of the psychology of abusive relationships.)


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This is a very limited test with an insufficient number of subjects, but it is something which needs to be objectively validated with a much larger subject group.


Could the overwhelming preference for detecting the spinning Blue/Black Dyop, indicating Near Vision Stress, plus a perceived higher childhood emotional stress, correlate to the higher percentage of Trump supporters who tested positive for dyslexia? 

Could that overwhelming preference for seeing the spinning Blue/Black Dyop and their childhood stress correlate to the percentage of Trump supporters who believe what they hear rather than what they read

It may be possible that Trump-preferring individuals who have a “non-dyslexic” Stable Near Image also have strabismus-type dyslexia rather than Near Vision Stress.


Near Vision Stress in the ranks of the Trump supporters could also only explain the dominance in that group for being non-college graduates (less motivated to go to college due to reading difficulties), as well as their gullibility for Trump's dementia and liesVery few of the Letter-Based Stable Near Image people were Trump supporters.


You will want to run your own evaluation.  Give/Take the test for yourself and with your friends.


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There also seems to be a genetic factor as to behavior, culture, and the ratio of red/green photoreceptors.


The term Near Vision Stress is a more explanatory description of the mechanisms of color perception than ”dyslexic vision” because it allows inclusion of a broader range of symptoms such as migraines and/or epilepsy.


Dyslexia is so rampant among Native Americans (90%) that the term “dyslexia” is viewed as a requirement for being a “real” Native American.


Only about 20% of the European gene pool has Near Vision Stress which could correlate to the European use of letter-based words due to a Stable Near Image.   About 80% of the Chinese gene pool has Near Vision Stress which may correlate to the preference for pictographic based words which are more stable at a further distance.  


About 90% of Native Americans have Near Vision Stress as descents of the Mongolian gene pool which crossed over the Bering Strait approximately 13,000 years ago.  Dyslexia is so rampant among Native Americans that the term “dyslexia” is viewed as a requirement for being a “real” Native American.


The 90% of Native Americans with Near Vision Stress correlates to 80% of Hispanic Americans having Near Vision Stress due to racial intermingling. 


About 80% of Native Africans have Near Vision Stress which correlates to only 60% of African-Americans having Near Vision Stress also due to (frequently forced) racial intermingling.


Because 21st century technology is letter-based, dyslexia is an impediment to developing competitive literacy skills.  Near Vision Stress may also explain why African-American and Hispanic students frequently struggle with "letter-based" educationLearning to read (“reading White”) frequently requires learning to read words as pictographs, such as in the Orton-Gillingham techniqueChromatically modulated (tinted) lenses could potentially eliminate those dyslexia, migraine, and epilepsy symptoms.


However, there are psychological and physiological factors associated with Near Vision Stress.

 People with Near Vision Stress tend to overcompensate due to that unstable near-vision imageAs they walk down a hallway corridor their heads tend to bob from side-to-side (known as the "Steve Jobs walk").  That overcompensation leads to a preference for authoritarianism due to their visual instability (known as the "Steve Jobs style of management").  They also tend to have difficulty with written academics (such as "Steve Jobs, the college dropout"), and a propensity for drug such as marijuana or alcohol to reduce the visual stress from the difficulty focusing on near-images (which partly is why Jobs went to India where weed is legal and widely available).


What is stunning is that ALL of the Donald Trump supporters likely have symptoms of Near Vision Stress AND a stressful/authoritarian childhood.


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Dyslexia and Information Overload


There is an additional psychological factor with dyslexia. 


Much like dyslexic Steve Jobs, a person with dyslexia learns to compensate for their unstable near image by being excessively confident, also known as the Dunning-Kruger EffectEmotional compensation for dyslexia also explains the Dunning-Kruger Effect.


That excessive confidence is a result of the photoreceptor depletion response from the static stimulation of photoreceptors as illustrated by the The Lilac Chaser Illusion When you fixate on the Plus (+) in the center of the ring of Pink circles (below), you likely see the Pink circles seemingly rotating around that Plus.  But it is also likely that after a few moments of fixating on the Plus you will also see a single Green circle which appears to be moving around the plus.  There is NO Green circle.  The Green circle illusion is because of the depletion and insufficient refresh of the Red photoreceptors creating the illusion (or delusion) that the depleted photoreceptor area is a Green circle. 



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The Lilac Chaser Illusion



The metaphor of the Lilac Chaser Illusion is that when people have too much negative stimulus (such as from watching too much Fox News or Q-Anon drivel) they fill in the gaps with illusions and delusionsThe Lilac Chaser is a physiological metaphor to describe those Gullible Trump Supporters (aka, the REAL Trump Delusion Syndrome).  


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Possible Psychological Explanation


One of the psychological effects of dyslexia is the overcompensation and excess confidence in dealing with an unstable near imageThat overcompensation typically results in a person with Near Vision Stress walking down a hallway or corridor with their head bobbing from side-to-side (the "Steve Jobs walk") from the Dunning-Kruger Effect


A person with a Stable Near Image will walk down the same corridor with their head moving in a straight line.


That dyslexia overcompensation also seems to lead to a preference for authoritarian and hierarchical relationshipsIt translates into a preference for someone projecting excess confidence rather than actual competence, with a belief in what they hear rather than what they read.   


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Trump supporters tend to be Fundamentalists and Authoritarian as to their convictions and a preference for Confidence over Competence.   Clinton supporters tended to be collaborative and more concerned with literacy and logic indicating a preference of Competence over Confidence.  However, unlike dyslexics who are NOT Trumps supporters, dyslexic Trump supporter typically have a childhood history of a neglect (such as Steve Jobs) or abuse (such as Donald Trump).   See the Follow-up below.


Cultures in Asia, Africa, and the Mid-east tend to be authoritarian.  However, there is also a 2500-year-old historic precedent as to reading and authoritarian political convictionsRed-haired Socrates despised reading and writingWhat we know about Socrates is only from the writings of his heretic pupil PlatoBecause of his efforts in attempting to lead a violent revolution to replace Athenian democracy with an oligarchy, Socrates was sentenced to death. Socrates was likely also the first "certified dyslexic" since his despising reading and writing and hierarchal social attitude was likely due to dyslexia. 



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Observations on Authoritarianism


In 2016 Matthew MacWilliams discovered that Trump supporters seem to have a high preference for "authoritarianism."


​​The correlation of authoritarianism to dyslexia symptoms is from the overcompensation to the unstable near vision image. That behavior was typified by the head-bobbing motion of “Steve Jobs" and his style of management prior to getting fired by Apple(It also is typified by Jobs' academic failures at Reed College and his forays into drugs since marijuana acts as a muscle relaxant to reduce the near-Dyop visual stress of Near Vision Stress.)


​​The most recent (and stunning) observation, however, of Trump's dyslexia was from watching a videotape of Trump's inauguration.  Trump and Pence walked down the corridor towards the inauguration podium with their heads bobbing from side-to-side typical of someone with dyslexia.  They were followed by Obama and Biden walking down the corridor with their heads and eyes moving in a straight line.


Michelle Obama's and Jill Biden's heads also both moved in a straight line.  Melania's head moved in a straight line, however, possibly indicating her training as a model, or that she does not have dyslexia.  However, Eric and Barron Trump both demonstrated head bobbing as they walked, while Ivanka and Donald Junior did not.


However, a third of the people who HAVE Near Vision Stress are NOT Trump supporters (and are terrified of him)Their negative response to Trump is likely from training their parental training (nurturing) to be nice to others rather than abusive. The explanation as to those dyslexics who support Trump is that they seem to be either abused or neglected in their childhood.


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(Comments regarding the events of January 6, 2021.)


The following comments regarding the behavior of Trump supporters were composed in 2018 but may have “predicted” the events of January 6, 2021, in the Washington DC Capital.



I am NOT very optimistic as to the outcome of our society WHEN Trump is removed from office.  There are too many Trump supporters who continue to be oblivious to the lies, the immorality, the corruption, and the bullying who fail to recognize that they have been conned.


What I am expecting is that a massive, Trump supporting, self-appointed militia will riot similar to the riots in India when a beloved guru was convicted of rape:


Fortunately, our “well-regulated militia” (the US Military, Police, and National Guard) will be able to deal with the self-appointed “people” who think they have the individual “right to bear arms” and fail to realize that their obsession is actually that of a self-appointed terrorist organization.


It will not be pleasant.


Caveat: I am in the process of trying to have my vision/nurturing correlation academically validated.  Any assistance as to additional validation, OR even valid academic disproval, would be greatly appreciated.



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